children's rights violations in china

(Paragraphs 32 and 33) Forced abortions and sterilisations It also calls upon the State party to strengthen its system of data collection in regard to all forms of violence against women and to include such information in its next report. (Paragraph 17).The Committee calls upon the State party to put in place a comprehensive approach to overcoming traditional stereotypes regarding the role of women and men in society, in accordance with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention. The Committee further notes the ILO–IPEC information that the TICW Project Phase II was completed in 2008, and that its remaining activities were incorporated into the CP-TING Project. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee urges the State party to adopt a human rights-based approach to disability and specifically recommends that it: (a) Repeal all provisions which result in de facto discrimination against children with disabilities and include a specific prohibition of discrimination on the ground of disability in all relevant legislation and policies, including the proposed Regulations on the Education of People with Disabilities. All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery. It is especially concerned that:(a) Children above 16 years can be detained in RTL facilities without any access to legal safeguards or representation and such detention can last up to 18 months, according to the State party; [The Committee] also encourages the State party to enhance victims' access to justice and redress, for example, through training aimed at judicial officers, including judges, lawyers and prosecutors, in order to enhance their capacity to deal with violence against women in a gender-sensitive manner and ensure that claims are investigated expeditiously, including incidents of violence against women in detention centres. Lastly, the Committee notes the information in the compilation report of 16 December 2008 prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for the Universal Periodic Review of China that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Committee on the Rights of the Child each called upon China to eliminate all miscellaneous and other “hidden” fees for primary education (A/HRC/WG.6/4/CHN/2, paragraph 38). All rights reserved |, ADDRESS Suite 152, 88 Lower Marsh, London SE1 7AB, United Kingdom, Abduction, sale and trafficking of children, particularly for sexual exploitation, Child labour, including the worst forms of child labour, Sexual exploitation and abuse of children, Prevalence of sex-selective abortions despite the prohibition, Barriers to access to education, particularly affecting rural communities, minority regions and internal migrants, Lack of education provision in minority languages, Discrimination against children with disabilities, Killing of children with disabilities, including intellectual disabilities, Inadequate guarantees of access to justice for children. (Paragraph 29). For those children with disabilities living at home in rural areas, the Committee is concerned at the lack of community-based services and assistance. China is often accused of … The ITUC states that there are increasing press reports on child labour, but that data collection is not systematic. In its previous comments, the Committee noted the ITUC’s allegations that, according to the hukou system (household registration), migrant workers’ children, who travel with their parents to a city where they have no right to register as permanent residents, are not allowed access to schooling provided by the local governments. With regard to Macau SAR, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities experience de facto discrimination and have limited access to inclusive education and well-trained, motivated teachers. In this regard, the Committee notes that in 2010, the Government issued the “National Mid- and Long-Term Reform on Education and Development Programme(2010–20)”, which includes specific compulsory education targets, measures to increase the guaranteed level of resource funds and initiatives to raise the quality of education at all levels. While recognising the efforts made by the State party to address trafficking in women and girls, including cross-border and international cooperation, the Committee is concerned that the definition of trafficking in the Penal Code is limited to the purpose of exploitation of prostitution and is therefore not in line with international standards. (Paragraph 84) Access to health services is limited, making Tibet the worst place to live in China in terms of health. Advocate for the protection of child rights by calling for an end to fires and deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest! The ITUC’s allegations reference cases where children were brought to work in factories by their parents in order to pay for their school fees.The Committee also notes the information contained in the Government’s report that the net entrance rate for primary school has increased to 99.54 per cent. (Paragraphs 22)._________________________________________________________________Forced labour in re-education campsUN Committee on the rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013). (Paragraph 22)_________________________________________________________________Corporal punishmentUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013). Programmes of action to eliminate the worst forms of child labour. , _________________________________________________________________Forced abortions and sterilisationsUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013), The Committee is disturbed by reports of forced sterilisation and abortions in mainland China targeting, among others, teenage girls, carried out by local family planning officials in the context of implementation of mainland China's ‘One-Child Policy,’ practices which contravene the fundamental principles and provisions in the Convention.The Committee recommends mainland China to promptly and independenly investigate and publicly report all incidents of forced abortions and forced sterilisation of teenage girls by local authorities, and prosecute all officials responsible for such crimes. The Committee is concerned about the lack of screening programmes for early detection of disabilities in mainland China, Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR. It is further concerned about: (a) The quality of education throughout mainland China, affecting students’ repetition and retention and high drop-out rates for lower secondary school especially in a number of southern provinces;(b) Inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor school infrastructure and physical safety for children in schools;(c) The lack of measures to promote the use and learning of mother-tongue and minority languages in the context of the bilingual education policy and discrimination against Tibetan and Uyghur children and children of migrant workers within the Chinese education system;(d) The multiple barriers in the use and promotion of the Tibetan language in schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China and reports of closure of schools and detention of teachers;(e) The prohibition of admission of children of an “evil cult” to educational institutions, as stipulated in Article 10 of the 2013 regulation on “Admission Requirements for Universities and Colleges,” which prevents children of Falun Gong practitioners, among others, from obtaining college education; and(f) The quality and reliability of education data throughout the country. In Tibet, there are young monks who are only 5 years old. The Committee is concerned about the absence of specific data on child labour in mainland China while reports indicate that child labour and exploitation, including through abductions and sale of children by criminal gangs is widespread. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenLast reported: 10 August 2006Concluding Observations issued: 25 August 2006 The situation remains very tense in Tibet with regard to human rights; NGOs are struggling to provide aid because Chinese authorities are very reluctant. It also noted the allegations of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, now the ITUC, that China is a source, transit and destination country for international human trafficking in women and children. It urges mainland China to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily and that the best interests of the child shall be the primary consideration in any action. The Government states that this labour and vocational and technical training aims to improve the employability and earning capacity of the juveniles, to avoid recidivism. See full reports on Convention No. The Committee is seriously concerned about the high prevalence of sexual exploitation and abuse against children, including rape, in all areas of the State party’s jurisdiction. In this regard, the Committee notes the indication in the ITUC communication of 1 September 2010 that not all child victims of prostitution are victims of trafficking. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee urges the State party to adopt a human rights-based approach to disability and specifically recommends that it: The Committee further notes the ILO–IPEC information that the TICW Project Phase II was completed in 2008, and that its remaining activities were incorporated into the CP-TING Project. It remains however deeply concerned about the continued application of administrative detention of children, including RTL and ‘Work Study Schools’ (gongdu xuexiao), and the failure of the State party to end these practices despite repeated concerns expressed by the treaty bodies and UN special procedures mandate holders. An unfortunate consequence of these restrictions is the abandonment of many children, particularly girls, or even infanticide in some areas, although that is formally denied by Beijing. In this regard, the Committee noted the Government’s statement that, under the relevant legislation, any form of forced labour involving juvenile delinquents is banned. The ITUC also states that the lack of national statistics and analysis of data on child labour, child prostitution and child trafficking remains a serious problem, which raised considerable concern with regard to the authorities’ willingness to address these issues. The Committee, while welcoming the State party’s efforts to implement the Committee’s concluding observations of 2005 on the State party’s second periodic report (CRC/C/CHN/CO/2), notes with regret that some of the recommendations contained therein have not been fully addressed.The Committee reiterates its recommendations to mainland China and Macao SAR and Hong Kong SAR to take all necessary measures to address all those recommendations that have not been implemented or not sufficiently implemented and urges the State party to: It requests the Government to continue to provide information on the results achieved, particularly on the number of children of migrant workers who were effectively provided with compulsory education through the measures taken, and estimates on the number of these children who remain out of school. It noted the ITUC’s allegations that, although the legislation calls for separate places for minors, in practice, due to limited spaces available, many minors are incarcerated with the adult population. Programmes of action to eliminate the worst forms of child labour.  It specifically recommends that mainland China:(a) Adopt comprehensive legal and policy measures to address the underlying factors for infanticide, including the ‘One-Child Policy’;(b) Ensure more effective and consistent application and enforcement of laws against infanticide in all provinces and prefectures; and(c) Improve ways to count, verify and register every birth. (Paragraph 66) The Committee therefore requests the Government to provide information on measures taken to address the commercial sexual exploitation of persons under 18 years of age who are not street children or victims of trafficking, particularly their use, offering or procuring for the purpose of prostitution, pornography or pornographic performances. In particular, the Committee is concerned about: (a) The particular vulnerability of children of migrant workers, especially those left behind by their parents in the care of relatives or others in mainland China to sexual exploitation and abuse;(b) The low rate of prosecution for such crimes against children and the pervasiveness of extrajudicial settlements in mainland China and withdrawal of complaints in Macau SAR, leading to impunity for perpetrators;(c) The lack of awareness among children in all areas of the State party’s jurisdiction about sexual abuse and ways to respond to and report such incidents;(d) The lack of procedures to identify and support child victims of sexual exploitation and trafficking in Hong Kong SAR; and(e) The limited access to justice, shelter, medical services, psychological counselling and compensation for child victims of sexual exploitation and abuse under the national legislation in mainland China, Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR. The ITUC also refers to UNICEF figures indicating that approximately 1 million children drop out of school each year due to poverty (particularly ethnic minorities and girls) and that two-thirds of non-enrolled school-age children in China are females. There are multiple reasons whcih lead families to leave their children so early (poverty, historical reasons, etc…) but it is certain that the right of children to choose this life or to talk about this choice is largely ignored. Sexual exploitation and abuse of children (Paragraph 19).The Committee recommends that the State party increase its efforts to combat all forms of trafficking in women and girls. The Committee is also of the view that the "Diligent Work and Economical Study" (qingong jianxue) programme for schoolchildren constitutes exploitative child labour, in contradiction of the provisions of articles 6 and 7 of the Covenant, and Convention No. Students whose families are entitled to minimum living standards are given free textbooks and boarding school students receive livelihood subsidies. The Committee further recommends that mainland China take immediate legal, policy and awareness-raising measures to prevent sex-selective abortions, female infanticide and abandonment of girls, including by addressing factors that reinforce cultural norms and practices that discriminate girls. One of the main problems is that only Chinese is spoken and taught in the classroom, not the ethnic minorities’ languages. Summary: The violations highlighted are those issues raised with the State by more than one international mechanism.This is done with the intention of identifying children's rights which have been repeatedly violated, as well as gaps in the issues covered by NGOs in their alternative reports to the various human rights monitoring bodies. By the end of 2009, seven border liaison offices for combating cross-border human trafficking had been established. 10 on Children’s rights in Juvenile Justice (CRC/C/GC/10) and other relevant standards. However, it is seriously concerned that despite such programs, infanticide, particularly of girls and children with disabilities remain pervasive, a problem which is exacerbated by mainland China’s ‘One-Child Policy.’In light of article 6 of the Convention, the Committee urges mainland China to consider revising its stringent family planning policy in an effort to combat infanticide, in particular of girls and children with disabilities and to ensure that every child’s inalienable rights to life and survival are protected. [The Committee] is especially concerned that: (e) Children, especially in vulnerable situations, such as children in poverty, face several obstacles to accessing justice, including inadequate access to legal aid and lack of independent legal aid. (rejected)_________________________________________________________________Child labour, including the worst forms of child labourUN Convention on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013). UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenLast reported: 10 August 2006Concluding Observation issued: 25 August 2006 The Committee is concerned about the impact of the adverse sex ratio, which may contribute to the increase in trafficking in women and girls.The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its monitoring of the implementation of existing laws against selective abortion and female infanticide and to enforce them through fair legal procedures that sanction officials acting in excess of their authority. Despite government initiatives to reduce poverty, income distribution remains very unequal in China. The Committee recommends that mainland China continue to strengthen programmes and policies to ensure the accessibility of quality education for all children, particularly children of migrant workers, from ethnic minorities and refugee and asylum-seeking children. Ultimate authority rests with the CCP Central Committee’s 25-member Political Bureau (Politburo) and its seven-member Standing Committee. Such an approach should include legal, policy and awareness-raising measures, involve public officials and civil society and target the entire population, in particular men and boys. The Committee is further concerned about reports that children with disabilities are denied admission by mainstream schools, pressured to leave the schools, or sometimes expelled due to their disabilities. The Committee further noted the Government’s statement that it had developed a variety of policy measures to ensure equal access to compulsory education for these children, including a 2005 circular explicitly providing that the policy in place for urban students would similarly apply to the children of migrant workers from rural areas and a 2006 State Council document aiming to ensure equal access to compulsory schooling for the children of migrant workers. The Committee observes that these Plans do not appear to address the commercial exploitation of children who are not victims of trafficking, or who do not live on the street. Rights groups concerned about arbitrary detention, crackdown on freedom of speech and lack of access to information. In this regard, the Committee recommends that the State party reallocate resources from the special education system to promote the inclusive education in mainstream schools, so as to ensure that more children with disabilities can attend mainstream education. The ITUC also indicates that there is a lack of transparency in reporting and investigations. The Committee welcomes the amendment to mainland China’s criminal procedure code and the current discussions on reforming the Re-Education Through Labour Programme (RTL). It further recommends that it: The Committee also noted that the State Council approved a new National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Women and Children (2008–12) (NPAT 2008–12) in 2007. The Committee noted that the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed grave concern about the use of forced labour as a corrective measure, without charge, trial or review, under the “Re-education through labour” programme (E/C.12/1/Add.107, paragraph 23) and that the Conference Committee on the Application of Standards emphasised the seriousness of such violations of Convention No. UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesConcluding Observations issued: 15 October 2012 Trafficking. . The UNESCO EFA report further indicates that the unauthorised migrant schools are of questionable quality and some have been forced to close. The Committee notes the ITUC’s statement that domestic laws do not provide adequate sanctions for trafficking-related crimes. Furthermore, the ITUC states that Chinese police and local authorities collude with traffickers in the Tibet Autonomous Region near the Nepal border, to recruit girls and women to work as escorts and prostitutes, resulting in approximately 10,000 sex workers in the city of Lhasa. The Committee is deeply concerned about reports of forced abortions and forced sterilisations imposed on women, including those belonging to ethnic minority groups, by local officials in the context of the one-child policy, and about the high maternal mortality rate as a result of unsafe abortions. (a) Repeal all provisions which result in de facto discrimination against children with disabilities and include a specific prohibition of discrimination on the ground of disability in all relevant legislation and policies, including the proposed Regulations on the Education of People with Disabilities. (Paragraphs 57 to 60) Moreover, the Committee is concerned about the insufficient data and statistical information about the extent of trafficking, in particular internal trafficking.The Committee also urges the State party to take measures aimed at the rehabilitation and reintegration of women in prostitution into society, to enhance other livelihood opportunities for women to leave prostitution, provide support for them to do so and to prevent any detention of women without due legal process, UN Working Group on arbitrary detentionCountry visit: 18 to 30 September 2004Report published: 29 December 2004, Forms of administrative detention still in force include the following:− Work Study Schools (gongdu xuexiao), implemented to correct what is described in the Law on Preventing Juvenile Delinquency adopted on 28 June 1999 as “Seriously unhealthy behaviour that seriously harms society but does not qualify for criminal punishments”. (Paragraph 29). (Paragraphs 35 and 36)_________________________________________________________________Killing of children with disabilities, including intellectual disabilitiesUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013), The Committee notes as positive the ‘Care for Girls’ campaign to change traditional preferences for boys and promote greater recognition of the value of girls in mainland China. (Paragraph 17) 2. Children in regular Xinjiang schools may face similar ideological training. (Paragraph 66), UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesConcluding Observations issued: 15 October 2012, The Committee is concerned about the high number of special schools and the State party’s policy of actively developing these schools. In this regard, it is seriously concerned about the reports of official harassment and forced closure of privately run schools for migrant children in areas where they have little or no access to the state school system. 2. 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